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同路人語 578 平等與相同 周偉文

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                年已90歲,在34時已獲取諾貝爾獎,被稱為DNA之父的學者華生(James Watson)在上週六,因為在一齣記錄片中,重申他認為黑人的智力不及白人,他相信這些差異是由於遺傳引起,被他曾任職數十年的冷泉研究所褫奪榮譽校長、奧利弗雷德格雷斯退休教授和榮譽信託人三個頭銜。

作為科學家,華生對在智識領域,對人類作出了極大貢獻。他專注在遺傳學的研究,使他探索種族之間相同及不同之處。在2007年他在《泰晤士報》的一個訪問中,表示對非洲的發展感到憂慮,因為他認為「所有社會政策都基於他們的智力與我們相同而設,但所有測試結果顯示這並非事實」。這言論在當時被視為種族歧視,而華生也因此而失去了研究所的職位而退下來。華生曾公開為言論道歉。不過在上週六播放的記錄片,他表示「智商測試中反映黑人和白人之間存在平均差異,我認為這些差異是遺傳的。」研究所為表示與他劃清界線,立時褫奪了他的頭銜。

華生並非種族主義者,但卻是一個政治不正確的科學家。他在2007年以科學家的看法,作出一些對非洲發展的建議。然而這些看法與「人人都是平等一樣」的信念相違背,他因此而失去工作。這一次他仍堅持自己的想法,就失去了機構給他的榮譽。

人人都是平等,但我們都不一定相同。稍為有一點心理學訓練的人都知道,測量智商的工具,都受到文化、社會及各種因素的影響。黑人與白人智商測試的差異與人人都是平等,可以說是沒有直接的關係。人人平等與人人相同根本是兩個不同的概念。

近年來不少人在社會中,要推行人人都要相同的政策,例如追求婚姻平權、或是在教育上人人都要取得同樣成績等,工作要得到相同回報等,都是把平等錯看成為人人都要變成相同。聖經說,我們都是神的創造,在這方面我們都是平等的。但我們都是神個別造出來的,因此我們每一個人都是寶貴而與別不同的。

 

Equal vs The Same

James Watson as the pioneer in DNA science won his Nobel Prize at the age of 34. Now aged 90, he was stripped away three honorary titles by Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory in which he had worked for decades. The cause was in a documentary last week he reiterated his belief that black people are born as not intelligent as white people.

As a scientist, Watson has enormous knowledge and contribution. His profound research in DNA science has revealed much among human races. In a 2007 Times interview, he said development in Africa was worrying because all social policies were built on a wrong premise that they have the same IQ as in western societies. On this racist speech, he lost his research post. Despite his subsequent apology, his reiteration of the same speech ripped him off from his granted titles by the institute.

 

Watson is not a racist; but a politically-blind scientist. In 2007 he made suggestions on African development from a scientist’s viewpoint. He lost his job because this viewpoint contradicted with ‘all people are equal’. His insistence this round made him lost all his final honors.

All are equal, although not all are the same. Anyone with basic psychology know-how understand how IQ is to be affected by cultural and social factors. So IQ assessment disparity on black and white people has no impact on their equality. Equal does not mean the same.

 

Recent social trend is to promote ‘everyone should be taken as the same’ such as in marriage, study, job to the extent that equal means the same. The Bible tells that we are all God’s precious creation in equity. But each and every of us is uniquely not the same as any other.

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